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中国人的邪恶妲己和犹太人的英雄妲己


2016/4/16  编辑:admin 来源:本站整理 

中国人的邪恶妲己和犹太人的英雄妲己_arp联盟谈起妲己,大家首先想到封神演义,不知道大家想过没有,为什么是元或明朝的作品。

中国记录
《封神传》,一般俗称《封神榜》,又名《商周列国全传》、《武王伐纣外史》、《封神演义》。是一部中国神魔小说,作者是明朝的陈仲琳(或许仲琳),也有一说为明代道士陆西星(《封神演义》中有十馀处引用道教经典《黄庭经引》)。约成书于隆庆、万历年间。全书内容以篇幅巨大、幻想之奇特而闻名于世,展现了古人丰富的想象力。
许仲琳(约1560—约1630),亦作陈仲林,号钟山逸叟,应天府(今江苏南京市)人,生平事迹不详,他生活在明代中后期,明朝小说家。

我在跟同事做演讲,谈到英文是中文的方言。有人问,凭什么你说莎士比亚发明的7000英文单词是中文的记音。我回答她:你不可以从无而创造发明东西。古人没有什么想象力,应该都是真实的加上夸张。

外国记录

主要圣经妲己传
Esther (/ˈɛstər/; Hebrew: אֶסְתֵּר, Modern Ester, Tiberian ʼEstēr), born Hadassah, is the eponymous heroine of the Book of Esther.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Esther was a Jewish queen of the Persian king Ahasuerus. Ahasuerus is traditionally identified with Xerxes I during the time of the Achaemenid empire. Her story is the basis for the celebration of Purim in Jewish tradition.
这里谈到妲己(Esther) 是英雄,他是纣王(Xerxes )的犹太妻子

当然,我并不相信西方史,但是这个妲己记录的出现,侧面说明了,圣经是元朝的中文译本
Canonicity in Christianity
The status of Esther as a canonical book of the Bible has historically been under dispute. For example, in the first several centuries of Christianity, Esther does not appear in the lists of books produced by Melito, Athanasius, Cyril, Gregory of Nazianzus, and others. Additionally, no copies of Esther were found at Qumran in the contents of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Nevertheless, by the fourth century CE, the majority of Western churches accepted Esther as a part of their Bibles.
Esther is also commemorated as a matriarch in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod on May 24. She is also recognized as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox and Coptic Orthodox Churches.
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这些事情都说明,妲己的故事,和中国的封神演义,是同一时间出现的。两者的故事方向是一致的,即周灭商是对的。中国说妲己误国,错在妲己;犹太人说妲己救大家。

同时,必须声明的是:元朝统一世界,修订了世界历史。西方的历史,如果有点话,应该是元朝的记录。

中国有两个妲己版本,一个元朝之前,一个是元朝之后。让我们来比较一个三个妲己。
我们先解释中文方面,然后看看圣经方面。
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百度百科介绍

妲己 (商纣王妃子)
苏妲己,冀州侯苏护之女,河内温(今河南省温县苏王村)人,有苏氏之女有苏氏部落之女,世称“苏妲己”,帝辛的妃子。本 名 苏妲己 别 称妲己 所处时代商朝 民族族群华夏族 出生地河内温(今河南省温县苏王村)去世时间约公元前1046年身 份 商纣王后 丈 夫商纣王(帝辛)

冀州历史悠久,上古时期,黄帝划野分州,冀为九州之一,大禹治水后,重新划分九州,冀为“九州之首”。河北简称“冀”就源于此。 冀,北方州也。从北异声。——《说文》
两河间曰冀州。——《尔雅·释地》
河内曰冀州。——《周礼·职方氏》。朱骏声曰:“地亘今盛京 直隶山西、河南各府州, 淮南地形,正中 冀州,曰中土。”
惟彼陶唐,有此 冀方。——《书·五子之歌》。 孔传:“ 陶唐帝尧氏,都冀州,统天下四方。”
冀州,就是中原。冀的造字,就是中原地形,上北,下南,中间是方地。也就是以叙利亚为中心的中东地区。

中国称犹太地区为苏氏。
起源演变
苏姓的起源主要出于己姓。颛顼之子称,称之子老童,老童之二子黎、吴回在高辛氏时代先后任祝融氏。吴回之子陆终,陆终有六子,后分别发展为六个大部落,为六个姓族。陆终的长子樊,为己姓族,居于昆吾,即今山西省运城东北的安邑镇,后发展为强大的昆吾部落,史称昆吾氏,为己姓。[1]
夏朝中期,大约在公元前1800年,帝槐(或帝芬)封昆吾氏后裔于有苏,在今河南省辉县西的苏岭,史称有苏氏。苏国历夏商两代,商末苏国灭,族人以苏为氏,苏人四散。一支苏人东迁姑苏,即今江苏省苏州市。一支北上邺西苏城,即今河北省临漳县西。在周武王灭商后,北上的一支继续北迁襄国的苏人亭,即今河北省邢台西南。接着迁到完县西南的苏。而留在苏岭的苏人归顺了周朝,首领苏忿生入朝作周武王的司寇,被封于苏,国都温,即今河南省温县。春秋时公元前650年苏国灭于狄。苏姓第一位出名的苏忿生被后人祭祀为苏姓始祖。己姓苏氏的历史至少有2600多年。苏姓的一支南迁湖南省梅山一带成为梅山蛮,宋初进一步南迁,与土著混居,一部分成为瑶族
的先民,大部分成为湖南、广东、广西的汉族苏姓。[1]
秦汉以后,北方部落逐渐强大,不断南侵扩张,到魏晋南北朝时,北方战火连年不断,中原政权频繁更迭,北方民族大批进入中原,中原百姓南迁东移,北方汉人中开始融入了大量外族基因。加入苏姓群体中的外族主要有:汉晋时辽东乌桓部的苏姓人,南北朝北魏时鲜卑族拔略氏族,北宋时西夏党项族的苏姓人,金国女真族的苏姓人。到清朝,满洲八旗的伊拉哩氏、苏佳氏、苏都哩氏、苏尔佳氏等族人改为汉族苏姓。这些少数民族与汉人长期混居,逐步同化而成为当地的苏姓汉族。[5]

《封神演义》记载苏妲己乃是难得一见的美女,纣王沉迷于苏妲己的美色,荒理朝政,对她言听计从,到了“妲己之所誉贵之,妲己之所憎诛之”的地步,苏妲己进宫后,害死贤德的姜王后,唆使纣王造炮烙、虿盆等酷刑,又造劳民伤财的鹿台、酒池、肉林,搞得君臣离心离德,民怨沸腾,外邦不朝,使得商朝灭亡,最后被周朝军队所诛杀。

在圣经记载,不是妲己害了姜皇后。酒肉临池也是犒劳人民。

目录
妲己(dá jǐ),己姓,字妲,有苏氏部落之女[1] ,世称“苏妲己”。据《左传》记载,公元前1047年,商纣王发动大军,攻击有苏部落。有苏部落抵挡不住强大的商军进攻,在灭亡和屈膝间,有苏部落首领选择屈膝,献出牛羊、马匹及美女妲己。

在圣经记载,不是强制送美女,而是选妃,大家抢着送没人给皇帝。

商纣王喜好喝酒,沉湎音乐,迷恋女人。得到妲己后,对她非常宠爱,并且对妲己言听计从。于是,商纣王让一名叫涓的乐师作新的淫荡的曲子,鄙俗的舞蹈,颓废的音乐,加重赋税,充实鹿台的钱财和钜桥储存的粮食。多方收集狗马和珍奇玩好,充满宫廷。进一步扩建沙丘花园楼台,大量捕捉飞禽走兽在里面放养。整日在沙丘园中聚会玩乐游戏,把酒灌满池,把肉挂成林,每宴饮者多至三千人[2] ,让男女脱光衣服相互追逐,通宵饮酒取乐。[3]

在圣经记载:这个宴会时一个美好的犒劳人民的宴会。

百姓对商纣王的行为怨声载道,有诸侯开始背叛他。于是,商纣王加重刑罚,苏妲己发明炮烙刑法。妲己喜观“炮烙之刑”,将铜柱涂油,燃以火炭,令犯人行其上,跌落火红的炭中,脚板被烧伤,不时发出惨叫。妲己听到,就像听到刺激感官的音乐一样发笑。商纣王任命西伯侯姬昌、九侯、鄂侯为三公。九侯有位女儿长得十分美丽,九侯把她送给商纣王。九侯的女儿不喜欢淫荡,商纣王恼怒于是杀了她,并把九侯剁成肉酱。[4]

在圣经记载:因为有人欺负苏人(犹太人),所以妲己想法害死了商大臣。

商纣王的无道,激起人民反抗。公元前1046年,周武王乘机发动诸侯讨伐商纣王,在牧野之战一举击败商军,商朝灭亡,商纣王逃到鹿台自焚而死,[5] 妲己也被周军所诛。[6]
人物考证编辑
关于妲己的种种记载及传说,已经家喻户晓,深入人心,一直到十九世纪末,二十世纪初,考古学家在河南省安阳市小屯村,挖掘出土许多殷商时期的遗物,其中的玉器,铜器,尤其是龟甲与兽骨上所刻的大量文字与“卜辞”,使得我们对周代以前历史状况的认识,远较孔子、司马迁当时所能接触的资料为多时,才对妲己和商纣王的真实面貌,有了接近事实的评估。

“纣王”并不是正式的帝号,是后人给他的谥号,意思是“残义损善”。[7] 他正确的名称应该是“帝辛”。

我不知道是不是根据现代知识改正的。我想中国应该有些能人,不都是傻瓜。

帝辛性情刚猛,好自用,帝辛三十余岁嗣位,当时商朝开国已经六百年,国力雄厚。物阜民丰,帝辛血气方刚,孔武有力,能手格猛兽,神勇冠绝一时,而且能言善辩,还兼通音律,性好美色,更刚愎自用,于是凭丰沛的国力与自己过剩的精力,大举向东南方发展,征服土地肥沃的人方部族(今淮河流域),从而拓地无算,国威远播。帝辛在位的第三十年,即前1047年,他对有苏部落发动进攻。这时他已年过六十。征伐有苏部落,载回的战利品之一就是妲己,当时帝辛已经垂垂老矣,而妲己正值青春少女,骨肉婷匀,眉宇清秀,混身充满几近爆炸性的火热气韵,迅速地在帝辛的内心深处,重新点燃起他生命的火焰。当时的商朝,十分迷信鬼神巫卜。为了酬神祭祀,时常载战载舞,饮酒欢唱,甚至作长夜之饮,几至醉死。


与商纣王

妲己进入帝辛的生活领域时,正是商朝国力如日中天之时,那时新的都城正在风光明媚,气候宜人的朝歌(今河南淇县)建造起来,四方的才智之士与工匠,也纷纷向朝歌集中,形成空前的热闹与繁荣。离宫别馆,次第兴筑;狗马奇物,充盈宫宝;以酒为池,悬肉为林;丝竹管弦漫天乐音,奇兽俊鸟遍植园中,从此戎马一生的帝辛,终于在妲己这个小女人的导引下,寄情于声色之中,纵情享乐。

这个朝歌,应该不是埃及开罗,而是在伊拉克。

就在帝辛宠爱妲己时,在今陕西渭水流域的周部落逐渐发展壮大,周部族原是夏朝后稷的后裔,早在古公时代,便有翦商的打算,《诗经》中的《鲁颂》中有这么一段;“后稷之孙,实维大王,居歧之阳,实始镇商。”
事实上对付强大的商朝,不是那么简单的事,季历继位后,推行仁义,使周逐渐强盛,诸侯很多都归顺了他。商王文丁时,季历受封为“牧师”,成为西伯。因权重遭忌,季历被文丁软禁绝食死,自此周与商之间埋下了仇恨的种子。季历去世后,其子姬昌继位,力行仁政,国力日盛,附近的部族都非常信服,遭到商朝的忌惮。

姬昌就是后世所称的周文王,当时他的长子伯邑考在商朝做人质,担任为帝辛驾车之职。后因事触怒帝辛,帝辛烹杀伯邑考,并将他做成肉羹,赐给姬昌吃[8] ,并把姬昌囚禁在羑里两年,由于周部族的臣子们多方营救,并向帝辛纳贿,才获得释放,由此周与商的仇恨越积越深。
在往后的日子里,帝辛的臣子们似乎都刻意地在经营东南一带的广大地区,而忽略雄踞两北的周氏族,姬昌首先并吞泾、渭平原上的密须、阮等部落;更越过黄河,征服黎、刊等部落,黄河以南的虞、芮等部落也已望风归附,周人的势力渐渐威胁到商的中心地区。
周人的首都由歧地迁到渭南的丰邑(今陕西户县),国力快速强盛。而此时的商王继续沉迷酒色,百姓对商王的行为怨声载道,有诸侯开始背叛他。
公元前1056年,周文王姬昌去世,由他的次子姬发继位,姬发以姜尚做他的师,周公做他的傅,召公、毕公一班人辅佐武王,遵循文王的遗业,韬光养晦、励精图治。[9] 帝辛日益昏乱暴虐,杀王叔比干,囚兄长箕子,大师疵、少师彊抱着他们的乐器去投奔周。这时武王姬发发觉攻打商的时机即将到来,孟津观兵以试探商军并座并宣布帝辛的十大罪状,于是联合天下诸侯,以堂堂之阵,正正之旗,进军商都朝歌。[10]
帝辛的哥哥微子启率领一批东南夷人组成的十七万大军,把周武王的联军拒于朝歌以外四十里的牧野(今河南汲县)。想不到这些夷人组成的军队,忽然一夜之间哗变,溃不成军。周人居然不费吹灰之力,长驱直入,兵临朝歌城下。帝辛逃跑,退入城中,登上鹿台,把他的宝玉都穿戴在身上,自焚而死。帝辛死后,周武王象征性的用黄钺砍掉他的脑袋,妲己也被杀。[11]
周文王和周武王建周灭商是长期政治与军事斗争。商朝的灭亡是外在穷兵黩武,内在国君残暴,民怨四起,而此时的周却笃行仁义,诸侯归心。商朝的亡国原因诸多,妲己只是入宫以后,由于争宠而与其他的妃嫔引起纷争,那些失宠的妃子各有氏族背景,因而加深帝辛与诸侯小国之间的冲突;如果硬要说妲己是亡国的祸水,未免太高估她的能力。

相关评论编辑
中国历代的“红颜祸水”里,最恶毒的恐怕莫过殷商时代纣王的宠妃妲己了。而且两个人犯起“混”来,简直算得上“夫唱妇随”,惊人的合拍了。如果按《史记·殷本纪》里的说法,纣王可谓残暴之极,但若按民间《封神演义》里的演绎,那简直就是变态,有着严重的“施虐狂”倾向。按《封神演义》的说法,妲己是千年狐精附体,受女娲之命来祸乱殷商的,所以纣王才变得如此怪戾,做出那些残忍的事来。当然,这是小说的说法,不足为信,但是小说来源于现实,却能表现出商末的政治形势。据《晋语》记载:“殷辛伐有苏,有苏氏以妲己女焉。”这就是说妲己是纣王征战得胜的“战利品”。据说有苏氏是以九尾狐为图腾的部落,所以才会有《封神演义》这般附会。虽然妲己不是狐狸精变的,可照样把纣王迷得五迷三道,“妲己之言听计从”。

为什么会说妲己是狐狸精呢?因为,她的名字发音像胡仙儿,所以是狐狸精了。

正史见《史记·卷三·殷本纪第三》记载:
帝纣资辨捷疾,闻见甚敏;材力过人,手格猛兽;知足以距谏,言足以饰非;矜人臣以能,高天下以声,以为皆出己之下。好酒淫乐,嬖於妇人。爱妲己,妲己之言是从。於是使师涓作新淫声,北里之舞,靡靡之乐。厚赋税以实鹿台之钱,而盈钜桥之粟。益收狗马奇物,充仞宫室。益广沙丘苑台,多取野兽蜚鸟置其中。慢於鬼神。大冣乐戏於沙丘,以酒为池,县肉为林,使男女倮相逐其间,为长夜之饮。
……
国学纣愈淫乱不止。微子数谏不听,乃与大师、少师谋,遂去。比干曰:“为人臣者,不得不以死争。”乃强谏纣。纣怒曰:“吾闻圣人心有七窍。”剖比干,观其心。箕子惧,乃详狂为奴,纣又囚之。殷之大师、少师乃持其祭乐器奔周。周武王於是遂率诸侯伐纣。纣亦发兵距之牧野。甲子日,纣兵败。纣走入,登鹿台,衣其宝玉衣,赴火而死。周武王遂斩纣头,县之白旗。杀妲己。释箕子之囚,封比干之墓,表商容之闾。封纣子武庚、禄父,以续殷祀,令修行盘庚之政。殷民大说。於是周武王为天子。其後世贬帝号,号为王。而封殷後为诸侯,属周。
《国语·卷七晋语一》(作者不可考,晋代即对其是否为正史有争议)

史苏告大夫曰:“有男戎必有女戎。若晋以男戎胜戎,而戎亦必以女戎胜晋,其若之何!”里克曰:“何如?”史苏曰:“昔夏桀伐有施,有施人以妹喜女焉,妹喜有宠,于是乎与伊尹比而亡夏。殷辛伐有苏,有苏氏以妲己女焉,妲己有宠,于是乎与胶鬲比而亡殷。周幽王伐有褒,褒人以褒姒女焉,褒姒有宠,生伯服,于是乎与虢石甫比,逐太子宜臼而立伯服。太子出奔申,申人、鄫人召西戎以伐周。周于是乎亡。今晋寡德而安俘女,又增其宠,虽当三季之王,不亦可乎?且其兆云:‘挟以衔骨,齿牙为猾,’我卜伐骊,龟往离散以应我。夫若是,贼之兆也,非吾宅也,离则有之。不跨其国,可谓挟乎?不得其君,能衔骨乎?若跨其国而得其君,虽逢齿牙,以猾其中,谁云不从?诸夏从戎,非败而何?从政者不可以不戒,亡无日矣!”

《列女传·卷之七·孽嬖传》(《列女传》是一部介绍中国古代妇女事迹的传记性史书,也有观点认为该书是一部妇女史。共七卷。作者是西汉的经学家,目录学家,文学家刘向,不过也有人认为该书不是刘向所做,也有人为认为,现在流传的版本是后人在刘向所做版本之上又增加若干篇得来的。为中国最早专门阐述妇女生活准则的教科书,是否是正史不可考)

殷纣妲己
妲己者,殷纣之妃也。嬖幸于纣。纣材力过人,手格猛兽,智足以距谏,辩足以饰非,矜人臣以能,高天下以声,以为人皆出己之下,好酒婬乐,不离妲己,妲己之所誉贵之,妲己之所憎诛之。作新婬之声、北鄙之舞、靡靡之乐,收珍物,积之于后宫,谀臣群女咸获所欲,积糟为邱,流酒为池,悬肉为林,使人裸形相逐其闲,为长夜之饮,妲己好之。百姓怨望,诸侯有畔者,纣乃为炮烙之法,膏铜柱,加之炭,令有罪者行其上,辄堕炭中,妲己乃笑。比干谏曰:“不修先王之典法,而用妇言,祸至无日。”纣怒,以为妖言。妲己曰:“吾闻圣人之心有七窍。”于是剖心而观之。囚箕子,微子去之。武王遂受命,兴师伐纣,战于牧野,纣师倒戈,纣乃登廪台,衣宝玉衣而自杀。于是武王遂致天之罚,斩妲己头,悬于小白旗,以为亡纣者是女也。书曰:“牝鸡无晨,牝鸡之晨,惟家之索。”诗云:“君子信盗,乱是用暴,匪其止共,维王之邛。”此之谓也。
颂曰:妲己配纣,惑乱是修,纣既无道,又重相谬,指笑炮炙,谏士刳囚,遂败牧野,反商为周。

在圣经记载:圣人之心有七窍。”于是剖心而观之。是杀了他的几个儿子。

有关纣王


可是这个形象离他真实的情况还是有很大的距离。春秋时期,子贡早就有点看不过去,他愤愤为纣王鸣不平,说:“纣之不善,不如是之甚也!是以君子恶居下流,后世言恶则必稽焉。”然而在春秋时期,关于纣王的罪状还只限于“比干谏而死”,到了战国时期,比干的死法就生动起来,屈原说他是被投水淹死,吕不韦的门客则说他是被剖心而死,到了汉朝司马迁写《史记》的时候,已经有了更生动的演绎,说是纣王剖开他的心是为了满足妲己的好奇心,想看看“圣人”的心是不是七窍。而在晋朝,皇甫谧因为职业是医生的缘故,写些文史文章的时候,也不免会犯些职业病,又演绎出纣王在妲己的怂恿下,还解剖了怀孕的妇女,要看看胎儿形状。纣王纵是不好,也不至于如此之坏。后世书生们根据个人好恶,纷纷加工演绎,以讹传讹,其谬岂不大哉?

而关于纣王最著名的“酒池肉林”、“炮烙”的传说,周时的文献没有记载,春秋时也没有,可到了战国末期,韩非子突然很生动地描绘起来:“昔者纣为象箸而箕子怖,以为象箸必不加于土,必将犀玉之杯;象箸、玉杯必不羹菽藿,则必旄、象、豹胎;旄、象、豹胎必不衣短褐而食于茅屋之下,则锦衣九重,广室高台。居五年,纣为肉圃,设炮烙,登糟丘,临酒池,纣遂以亡。”

据说韩非子口吃,可文章非常雄辩,这样充满想象力的文字便是明证。但那时诸子百家个个口才了得,为了推销个人的主张,论证自己的观点,不免只顾激扬文字,“强”词夺理了。很多论据,也多是“想当然耳”。便是“不虚美,不隐恶”的司马迁,有时也会润润笔。譬如他在韩非子“酒池肉林”的基础上,又加上“男女裸奔其间”的合理想象。当然,在他之前,已经有人在酒池面积上大做文章,说可以“回船糟丘而牛饮者三千余人为辈。” 这样的想象力只能用疯狂来形容。也许,在他们看来,反正纣王形容得再淫荡、再荒唐也无妨。历史的另一个目的便是警示后人嘛,于是,他们的想象和润色,便常常显得坦然而大方。譬如司马迁之后的史学大家刘向,就把纣王鹿台的面积升级为“大三里,高千尺”,而晋朝的皇甫谧觉得还不过瘾,一咬牙,把鹿台的建筑面积提高了十倍,达到“高千丈”的地步。

根据《世说新语》中引孔融的话说:武王克殷,周朝部队进入朝歌以后,殷纣王的宠妃妲己姿色妖艳,为周公所喜,后来便成为周公的侍妾,享受着永久的荣华富贵。这是断章取义的一种说法,实际上孔融只是在消遣曹操。真正的完整纪录是在《后汉书·孔融传》:曹操攻陷屠杀邺城时,袁绍家的妇人女子多被侵占,而曹操的儿子曹丕私自娶了袁绍之子袁熙的妻子甄氏。孔融就给曹操写信,说:“武王伐纣,把妲己赏赐给周公。”曹操不明白,问孔融典出何处。孔融回答说:“用今天的事推测,想当然罢了。”[12] 这是孔融在讽刺曹操与曹丕的说法,而孔融最终被处死。

历史评价编辑

姬发:“商王大乱,沈于酒德,辟远箕子,爰近姑与息。妲己为政,赏罚无方,不用法式,杀三不辜,民大不服。守法之臣,出奔周国。”
刘向《列女传》:“妲己配纣,惑乱是修,纣既无道,又重相谬,指笑炮炙,谏士刳囚,遂败牧野, 反商为周。”
《封神榜》:“妲己妖娇起众怜,临刑军士也情牵。桃花难写温柔态,芍药堪如窈窕妍。忆昔冀州能借窍,应知闺内善周旋。从今娇娃归何处,化作南柯带血眠。”

圣经是商朝记录,妲己灭商,犹太人纪念商朝,又纪念犹太,什么傻瓜!周朝杀了妲己。

史籍记载编辑

史记中只提到纣王宠妃为“妲己”,《封神演义》中杜撰为冀州侯苏护之女,实际并不姓苏,家世尚无正史可考。
有许多正史典籍,稗宫野史,神话演义,都传说妲己是一个骄奢淫逸的妖孽、心肠毒辣的蛇蝎美人,千古淫恶的罪魁祸首,又说帝辛是一个好大喜功,不恤民命、残酷昏淫的暴君,“唯妇言是用”的傀儡,这样论调家喻户晓,深植人心。她还有玩弄政治的野心,野心勃勃欲染指最高权力,掌权干政,纣王为讨好妲己,派人搜集天下奇珍异宝,珍禽奇兽,放在鹿台和鹿园中,每每饮酒作乐,通宵达旦,荒废国事,只顾与妲己纵欲淫乐,荒淫奢靡。《封神榜》属于神话小说,还有许多稗官野史,传说妲己是一个蛇蝎美人,千古淫恶的罪魁祸首,心毒手狠,掩袖工谗,残害忠良,狐媚惑主,种种记载及传说,家喻户晓,深植人心。

妲己在小说《封神演义》中亦被描述为一个美艳无比的女子,而且她本性善良仁慈,不过在入宫途中被九尾狐狸精害死,并被其附身,方有后期一连串令人发指的恶行。她怂恿纣王残害忠良,滥杀无辜,曾在情挑周文王之子伯邑考未遂下令将他剁成肉酱,做成包子(一说为馅饼)让周文王吃下。她性喜听人痛苦的惨叫声,为此纣王滥用酷刑,创出炮烙、锤击、虿盆等恐怖酷刑。

在圣经记载:原来的妲己,确实美丽仁慈,就是不听皇帝召见,种下祸害。

妲己之妹玉石琵琶精寻衅滋事前去找姜子牙算命,被姜子牙识破妖怪身份并在纣王妲己面前用三昧真火烧回原形,妲己为报此仇假意任命姜子牙为下大夫。后妲己借建造鹿台之名意图谋害子牙,子牙借水遁逃走。

大臣比干在纣王面前谏曰:“不脩先生之典法,而用妇言,祸至无日。”她为报复设法让义妹胡喜媚(由一只九头雉鸡精所化)进宫和她一起陷害比干。一日三人在鹿台上游玩时,妲己装作心痛,胡喜媚告诉纣王她们在冀州时妲己也发过这种病,要用“七窍玲珑心”来医治,而朝中只有亚相比干是玲珑心,纣王立刻下令要比干剖心。

在圣经记载:不是心,是杀了几个儿子

一次纣王夜宴群臣,妲己与喜媚在龙书房喝醉,不觉现出原形出来吃人,被武成王黄飞虎用金眼神莺抓坏面门,于是设计让黄飞虎的妻子贾氏被纣王调戏,使其羞愤自尽而亡,并间接害死黄飞虎之妹西宫黄娘娘,使得黄飞虎反出朝歌。商朝将灭之时,妲己和喜媚与王贵人去劫周营,但是被姜子牙带领众人击退。后来在逃回轩辕坟的途中,被女娲娘娘擒获,被杨戬等三人抓回周营,最后被姜子牙用斩仙飞刀斩下首级,生死不明。

妲己还尝设计让大将黄飞虎的妻子贾氏被纣王逼奸,使其羞愤跳下鹿台自尽而亡,黄飞虎之妹黄贵妃一怒之下攻击妲己,妲己顺水推舟向纣王哭诉,黄贵妃在纣王一怒之下从鹿台重重丢下,借此一箭双雕之计,其残酷个性由此可见一斑。后来武兵来讨,纣王于鹿台自焚而死,妲己亦被以祸国妖女之罪处死。

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圣经故事解读

记住,下面的犹太妲己是元朝创造的小说,与封神演义是一个版本,应该是音译版。

以斯帖记 1Chinese Contemporary Bible (CCB)

亚哈随鲁王大宴群臣

1 亚哈随鲁在位期间,统治从印度到古实的一百二十七个省。 2 亚哈随鲁王在书珊城登基, 3 他在执政第三年大宴群臣,波斯和玛代的将领、各省的贵族和大臣都在场。 4 整整一百八十天,他展示自己帝国的财富和王权的威荣。 5 之后,他又一连七天在御花园宴请书珊城里所有的居民,无论尊卑。 6 御花园里有白色的棉帐和蓝色的彩帐,用细麻绳和紫色绳系在大理石柱的银环上。有金银制成的床榻摆在各色斑岩、大理石、珍珠贝壳及其他贵重石头铺成的地上。 7 饮酒用的是各式各样的金器皿,御酒大量供应,足显王的慷慨。 8 喝酒有个规矩,不许勉强人,因为王吩咐过宫里所有的侍从,招待各人要随其所愿。 9 瓦实提王后也在亚哈随鲁王的宫里设宴招待女宾。
中文翻译不是很好,凑合看。
纣王,非常仁慈,大宴人民。
我们还是用英文原文解释。

瓦实提王后被废
10 第七天,亚哈随鲁王喝得心中畅快,就吩咐在王身边服侍的米户幔、比斯他、哈波拿、比革他、亚拔他、西达和甲迦七位太监, 11 去请瓦实提王后戴着后冠到王面前,向百姓和官员展现、她的美貌,因为她非常美丽。 12 但瓦实提王后违抗太监所传的谕旨,拒绝前来,王非常生气,怒火中烧。

13 王有事习惯征求通晓律例和法则之人的意见,于是他去问精通时务的哲士。 14 那时,靠近王的有甲示拿、示达、押玛他、他施斯、米力、玛西拿和米姆干七位波斯和玛代的大臣,他们常见王的面,在国中身居高位。 15 王问他们:“瓦实提王后违抗太监所传的谕旨,按律该如何处置她?”

16 米姆干当着王和大臣们的面说:“瓦实提王后不但冒犯了王,而且有害于举国的臣民。 17 因为王后的事必传到所有妇女的耳中,致使她们藐视自己的丈夫,因为她们会说,‘亚哈随鲁王请瓦实提王后到他面前,她却不去。’ 18 今天,波斯和玛代的贵妇听到王后这事,也会如此对待王的大臣,藐视和恼怒之事必层出不穷。 19 王若愿意,就请降旨不准瓦实提再到王面前,把她王后的位分赐给比她更好的女子,并将此谕旨写入波斯和玛代的律法,永不更改。 20 王的谕旨传遍王辽阔的国境后,所有的妇女,无论丈夫贵贱,都必尊重他们。”

21 王和大臣们都赞同米姆干的建议,王便依照他的建议, 22 用各省的文字和各族的语言写谕旨,通告各省,丈夫要做一家之主,说话有权柄。
以斯帖被立为王后
2 这事之后,亚哈随鲁王的怒气平息下来,就想起瓦实提和她的所做所为,并怎样降旨惩罚她的事。 2 王的侍臣说:“让人为王物色一些年轻貌美的处女吧。 3 请王在国中各省委派专使把所有年轻漂亮的处女选入书珊城的女宫,交给管理女子的太监希该,供给她们美容用品。 4 哪个女子讨王欢心,便立她为王后,代替瓦实提。”王觉得这个建议很好,就采纳了。

5 当时,书珊城中有个犹太人,名叫末底改,是便雅悯人基士的曾孙、示每的孙子、雅珥的儿子。 6 巴比伦王尼布甲尼撒曾从耶路撒冷掳走犹大王耶哥尼雅和百姓,末底改也在其中。 7 末底改收养了叔叔的女儿哈大沙,又名以斯帖,把她认作自己的女儿,因为她父母双亡。这女子体态优美,容貌动人。 8 王的谕旨一下,许多年轻的女子被召到苏珊城中,交给管理女子的希该照管。以斯帖也被送到王宫中交给希该。 9 希该喜欢以斯帖,就恩待她,急忙给她需用的美容用品和膳食,又从王宫为她挑选七名宫女,让她和她的宫女搬进女宫上好的房屋。 10 以斯帖没有向人透露过自己的种族和身世,因为末底改吩咐她不要透露。 11 末底改天天在女宫的庭院前徘徊,好打听以斯帖的消息,了解她的情况。

12 每个女子依次晋见亚哈随鲁王之前,都要照规矩洁净十二个月:六个月用没药油,六个月用香料和洁身用品。 13 每个女子从女宫到王宫晋见王时,她所要求的一切都要给她。 14 她晚上进去,次日被带到另一个女宫,交给管理妃嫔的太监沙甲。除非王喜欢她,提名召见她,否则她不会再见到王。

15 以斯帖是末底改的叔叔亚比孩的女儿,后来被末底改收养。轮到她晋见王时,除了管理女子的太监希该给她的东西外,她没有别的要求。凡看见她的人都喜欢她。 16 亚哈随鲁王执政第七年十月,即提别月,以斯帖被带进宫中见王。 17 王爱以斯帖胜过爱其他所有的女子,她比其他处女更得王的恩宠。于是,王把后冠戴在她头上,立她为王后,代替瓦实提。 18 王为以斯帖大摆宴席招待文武百官,又宣布各省休假[a],并厚赐礼物。

末底改救王的性命
19 第二次召集处女时,末底改已坐在宫门供职。 20 以斯帖依照末底改的吩咐,没有向人透露自己的身世和籍贯,因为她像幼年时一样听从末底改的话。

21 一天,末底改正在宫门供职,两个守门的太监辟探和提列恼恨亚哈随鲁王,想要下手害他。 22 末底改知道后,便通知以斯帖王后,以斯帖就以末底改的名义禀告王。 23 查明确有此事后,便把二人吊死在木架上,并将这事当着王的面写入史书。
哈曼图谋灭绝犹太人
3 后来,亚哈随鲁王擢升亚甲人哈米大他的儿子哈曼,使他的权位高过他所有的同僚。 2 王命令所有在宫门供职的臣仆都要向哈曼跪拜,但末底改不肯跪拜。 3 在宫门供职的臣仆问末底改:“你为何违抗王的命令?” 4 他们天天劝他,他却不听。他们便把这件事告诉哈曼,想看看末底改这样做是否能站得住,因为末底改已告诉他们自己是犹太人。 5 哈曼见末底改不肯向他跪拜,就怒气填胸。 6 他得知末底改是犹太人后,便不屑于只害末底改一人,而是要铲除亚哈随鲁王国内所有的犹太人,即末底改的同胞。

7 亚哈随鲁王十二年一月,即尼散月,有人在哈曼面前抽普珥,也就是抽签,来决定哪月哪日下手,结果抽中十二月,即亚达月。

8 哈曼对亚哈随鲁王说:“有一个民族散居在王境内各省的众民族中,他们的律例与各族的律例不同,他们不遵守王的律例,所以容忍他们对王不利。 9 王若愿意,就请降旨消灭他们。我愿捐三百四十五吨银子交给管理国事的人,纳入王的库房。” 10 于是王摘下手上的戒指,交给犹太人的仇敌——亚甲人哈米大他的儿子哈曼, 11 对他说:“这些银子归你,这个民族也交给你,随你处置。”

12 一月十三日,王的书记被召来,他们以亚哈随鲁王的名义,照哈曼的吩咐,用各省的文字和各族的语言写谕旨,用王的戒指盖印,送交各总督、各省省长和各族首领。 13 谕旨由信差送到王的各省,限令在一天之内,即十二月,也就是亚达月十三日,把犹太人的男女老少全部铲除、杀光、灭尽,并夺取他们的财物。 14 谕旨的抄本作为法令颁布到各省,通知各族为那天做好准备。 15 信差奉王的命令急忙上路,谕旨也在书珊城里颁布了。王和哈曼坐下饮酒,书珊城一片慌乱。

末底改求以斯帖帮忙
4 末底改得知这事,就撕裂衣服,披上麻衣,头蒙灰尘,在城中行走,放声痛哭, 2 一直走到宫门前才停住,因为穿麻衣的不可进宫门。 3 王的命令和谕旨传到各省,各地的犹太人极其悲伤,他们禁食、哭泣、哀号,许多人身披麻衣躺在灰中。

4 以斯帖王后的宫女和太监把这事禀告她,她非常难过,便为末底改送去衣服,让他换下麻衣,他却不肯接受。 5 于是,以斯帖把王派来服侍她的一个名叫哈他革的太监召来,叫他去见末底改,查明事情的原委。 6 哈他革就到宫门前的广场见末底改, 7 末底改便将自己的遭遇及哈曼为灭绝犹太人而捐入国库的银子数目都告诉了他。 8 末底改还把一份在书珊城颁布的要消灭犹太人的谕旨抄本交给哈他革,让他给以斯帖看,并嘱咐她去见王,为自己的同胞向王求情。 9 哈他革回去把末底改的话告诉以斯帖。 10 以斯帖便吩咐哈他革回复末底改说: 11 “王的所有臣仆和各省人民都知道有一条法令,不论男女,未蒙宣召擅入内院去见王的必被处死,除非王向他伸出金杖,他才能活命。现在我已有三十天未蒙王召见了。”

12 末底改听到以斯帖捎来的话后, 13 便回复她说:“你别以为在宫里就比其他犹太人安全。 14 如果此时你闭口不语,犹太人必从别处得解脱,蒙拯救,但你和你父亲一家必灭亡。谁知道你得了王后之位不是为了今日之时呢?”

15 以斯帖派人回复末底改说: 16 “你去召集书珊城所有的犹太人为我禁食,三天三夜不吃不喝,我和我的宫女也要这样禁食。然后,我要违例去见王,我若死就死吧。”

17 于是末底改便去照以斯帖的一切吩咐行事。

以斯帖为王和哈曼设宴
5 第三天,以斯帖身穿朝服进入王宫内院,面对大殿站立,王在殿里正面朝宫门坐在宝座上。 2 王见以斯帖王后站在院内,就施恩给她,向她伸出手中的金杖,以斯帖便上前摸杖头。 3 王问道:“以斯帖王后啊,你有什么事?你有何要求?就是半壁江山,也必赐给你!” 4 以斯帖回答说:“王若愿意,就请王今天带哈曼来赴我预备的宴席。” 5 王说:“快召哈曼来,我们好照以斯帖的话做。”于是王带着哈曼赴以斯帖预备的宴席。 6 席间,王对以斯帖说:“你要什么?我必赐给你。你有何要求?就是半壁江山,也必为你成就。” 7 以斯帖回答说:“王啊,我所要、我所求的就是, 8 我若得到王的恩宠,王若愿意赐我所要所求的,就请王明天带哈曼再来赴我预备的宴席,到时我一定向王禀明。”

哈曼图谋杀末底改
9 那天哈曼出来,心中欢喜快乐。但他看见末底改在宫门前既不起身,也不对他表示畏惧,心中十分恼火。 10 哈曼忍怒回到家中,把朋友和妻子细利斯叫来, 11 向他们夸耀自己的荣华富贵和儿孙满堂,以及王怎样擢升他,使他位极人臣。 12 哈曼又说:“还有,以斯帖王后只请了我随王赴她预备的宴席。她还请我明天随王赴宴。 13 但只要我看见犹太人末底改坐在宫门口,这一切对我都毫无意义。” 14 他妻子细利斯和他所有的朋友对他说:“你可以叫人做一个二十三米高的木架,明天早上求王将末底改吊在上面,然后你可以快乐地随王去赴宴。”哈曼喜欢这个提议,就叫人做了木架。
王赐末底改尊荣
6 那夜王睡不着觉,就吩咐人拿史书念给他听。 2 刚好念到末底改揭发两位守门太监辟探和提列谋害亚哈随鲁王的事, 3 王便问:“末底改既行此事,可曾赐他什么尊荣和爵位吗?”服侍王的臣仆回答说:“没有赐他什么。” 4 王问:“谁在院子里?”那时哈曼刚进到王宫外院,想请求王将末底改吊在他预备的木架上。 5 服侍王的臣仆回答说:“是哈曼站在院子里。”王说:“让他进来。” 6 哈曼进来后,王问他:“王愿意赏识一个人,该怎么做呢?”哈曼心想:“王愿意赏识的人不是我是谁呢?” 7 于是他就对王说:“王若愿意赏识一个人, 8 可以拿来王穿过的袍子,牵来王骑过的戴冠的御马, 9 交给王最尊贵的一位大臣,给王所愿意赏识的人穿上,让他骑着马在城中的广场上游行,并派人在他前面宣告,‘王愿意赏识谁,就会这样待他。’” 10 王对哈曼说:“快去照你说的,把王袍和御马赐给在宫门供职的犹太人末底改。你所说的一样也不可少。” 11 于是哈曼将袍子给末底改穿上,让他骑着马在城中的广场上游行,并在他前面宣告:“王愿意赏识谁,就会这样待他。”

12 之后,末底改回到宫门那里,哈曼却悲伤地蒙着头匆匆回家去了。 13 他将自己的遭遇详细告诉妻子细利斯和所有的朋友。他的谋士及其妻子细利斯对他说:“你开始在末底改面前败落。如果他是犹太人,你必胜不过他,终必在他面前败落。”

14 他们正在谈论的时候,王的太监来催哈曼赶快去赴以斯帖预备的宴席。
哈曼被处死
7 王带着哈曼去赴以斯帖王后的宴席。 2 在这第二次宴会中,王在席间又问以斯帖:“以斯帖王后啊,你要什么?我必赐给你。你有何要求?就是半壁江山,也必为你成就。” 3 以斯帖回答说:“我若得到王的恩宠,王若愿意,就请王把我的性命和我本族人的性命赐给我——这是我所求的。 4 因为我和我本族的人都被卖了,我们将被铲除、杀光、灭尽。如果只是卖我们为奴为婢,我会闭口不语,因为那样的痛苦不值得来打扰王[a]。” 5 亚哈随鲁王问以斯帖王后:“谁敢这样做?他在哪里?” 6 以斯帖回答说:“敌人和仇家就是这恶人哈曼!”哈曼在王和王后面前十分惊恐。

7 王大怒,离席去了御花园。哈曼见王定意要惩罚他,便留下来求以斯帖王后饶命。 8 王从御花园回到席上,见哈曼伏在以斯帖所靠的榻上,便说:“他竟敢在宫中当着我的面侮辱王后吗?”王这话一出口,便有人蒙了哈曼的脸。 9 服侍王的太监哈波拿说:“哈曼为那救驾有功的末底改做了一个二十三米高的木架,如今正立在哈曼家里。”王说:“把哈曼吊在上面!” 10 于是,哈曼被吊在他为末底改预备的木架上,王的怒气这才平息。
犹太人获拯救
8 当天,亚哈随鲁王把犹太人的仇敌哈曼的家产赐给以斯帖王后。末底改也来到王面前,因为以斯帖陈明了他们的亲属关系。 2 王摘下自己的戒指,就是从哈曼手中取回的,赐给末底改。以斯帖派末底改管理哈曼的家产。

3 以斯帖又俯伏在王的脚前,流泪哀求王废掉亚甲人哈曼加害犹太人的阴谋。 4 王向以斯帖伸出金杖,以斯帖就起来站在王面前, 5 说:“王若愿意,我若得到王的恩宠,王若认为好,并且喜悦我,就请王降旨废除亚甲人哈米大他的儿子哈曼阴谋灭绝各省犹太人的谕旨。 6 我怎能忍心看我本族的人受害?我怎能忍心看我的亲族被杀?” 7 亚哈随鲁王对以斯帖王后和犹太人末底改说:“我已把哈曼的家产赐给以斯帖,并把他吊在木架上了,因为他想害犹太人。 8 现在,你们尽可奉王的名写谕旨给犹太人,用王的戒指盖印,因为奉王的名所写、用王的戒指盖印的谕旨是不可废除的。”

9 三月,即西弯月二十三日,王的书记被召来,按照末底改的一切吩咐用各省的文字和各族的语言,包括犹太人的文字和语言写谕旨,传给从印度到古实的一百二十七省的犹太人、总督、省长和官员。 10 末底改奉亚哈随鲁王的名写谕旨,用王的戒指盖印,让信差骑王室快马送往各地。谕旨上说,王准许各城的犹太人在十二月,即亚达月十三日,聚集起来自卫,铲除、杀光、灭尽各族各省攻击他们的仇敌及其儿女、妻子,夺取仇敌的财物。 13 谕旨的抄本颁布到各省,昭告各族,使犹太人在那天预备好向仇敌报仇。 14 信差接到王的命令,急忙骑上王室快马上路。在书珊城也颁布了谕旨。

15 末底改身穿蓝色和白色朝服,头戴大金冠,披着紫色细麻布外袍,从王那里出来,书珊城的人都欢呼雀跃。 16 犹太人高兴欢喜,感到快乐光荣。 17 各省各城,凡谕旨所到之处,犹太人都欢喜快乐,设宴庆祝。许多当地人因惧怕犹太人而入了犹太籍。
犹太人的反击
9 十二月,即亚达月十三日,是执行王谕旨的日子。那天,犹太人的仇敌原本想辖制他们,却反而被他们辖制。 2 犹太人在亚哈随鲁王的各省各城聚集起来,攻击那些要害他们的人,无人能抵挡他们,因为各族都惧怕他们。 3 各省的官员、总督、省长和为王办事的人因惧怕末底改,就都帮助犹太人。 4 因为末底改已是王宫要员,他的名声传遍各省,权势日盛。 5 犹太人用刀击杀所有敌人,任意消灭恨他们的人。 6 犹太人单在书珊城就杀了五百人。 7 他们还杀了巴珊大他、达分、亚斯帕他、 8 坡拉他、亚大利雅、亚利大他、 9 帕玛斯他、亚利赛、亚利代和瓦耶撒他。 10 这十人是犹太人的仇敌哈曼的儿子、哈米大他的孙子。但犹太人没有动他们的财物。
11 当天,王获悉在书珊城被杀的人数, 12 便对以斯帖王后说:“犹太人在书珊城杀了五百人,还杀了哈曼的十个儿子,在其余各省就更不知怎样了!现在你要什么?必赐给你。你还有何要求?必为你成就。” 13 以斯帖回答说:“王若愿意,就请恩准书珊城的犹太人明天仍执行今天的谕旨,并把哈曼十个儿子的尸体吊在木架上。” 14 王允准了,便在书珊城颁布谕旨,哈曼十个儿子的尸体便被吊了起来。 15 亚达月十四日,书珊城的犹太人再次聚集起来,在城中杀了三百人,但没有动他们的财物。

16 王其他各省的犹太人也都聚集起来自卫,得以脱离仇敌。他们杀了七万五千个仇敌,但没有动他们的财物。 17 这事发生在亚达月十三日。十四日,犹太人休息,并以此日为设宴欢庆的日子。 18 但书珊城的犹太人在十三、十四日聚集杀敌,十五日才休息,并以此日为设宴欢庆的日子。 19 因此,住在乡村的犹太人都以亚达月十四日为设宴欢庆的节日,并互赠礼物。

普珥节
20 末底改把这些事记录下来,写信给亚哈随鲁王国内远近各省的犹太人, 21 吩咐他们每年在亚达月十四、十五日守节期, 22 设宴欢庆,互赠礼物,周济穷人,以纪念犹太人在此月此日得以脱离仇敌,化忧为乐,转悲为喜。

23 犹太人接受了末底改写给他们的信,同意每年庆祝这个节日。 24 因为犹太人的仇敌亚甲人哈米大他的儿子哈曼曾经阴谋毁灭犹太人,曾经抽普珥,即抽签,要杀戮、灭绝他们。 25 但王知道这阴谋后,便降旨使哈曼谋害犹太人的恶计落到他自己头上,将他及其众子吊在木架上。 26 他们借用普珥这个词,称这两天为普珥节。犹太人因这信上的一切话,又因所看见、所经历的事, 27 就为自己、自己的后代和归属他们的人定下规矩:每年必按时守这两天为节日,永不废弃。 28 各省各城、家家户户、世世代代都要纪念、遵守这节日,使犹太人永不中断过普珥节,他们的后代也不可忘记。

参考消息:http://www.arpun.com/29 亚比孩的女儿以斯帖王后和犹太人末底改以全权写第二封信,嘱咐犹太人守这普珥节, 30 用和善、真诚的话写信给亚哈随鲁王国一百二十七省的所有犹太人, 31 嘱咐他们照犹太人末底改和以斯帖王后的指示,按他们为自己及其后代所规定的,按时守普珥节,禁食哀哭。 32 以斯帖的命令确定了普珥节,这命令被记载下来。
亚哈随鲁和末底改的功绩
10 亚哈随鲁王使内陆和沿海的人民都进贡。 2 他所有的丰功伟绩以及擢升末底改的事都记在玛代和波斯的史书上。 3 犹太人末底改的地位仅次于亚哈随鲁王,他在犹太人中受尊崇,得到同胞的爱戴,因为他致力于本族人的益处,为他们谋求福祉。
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我们来分析英文:
Esther
1 In the days of Ahasuerus (this is Ahasuerus that reigned from India even unto Ethiopia, over an [b]hundred, and seven and twenty provinces.)
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纣王(前1105-前1046),子姓[1] ,名受或受德或辛[1] ,也叫“帝辛”。商代的第三十二位帝王,帝辛在位30年,后世称商纣王[1] 。据正史所载,商纣王博闻广见、思维敏捷、身材高大、膂力过人。继位后,重视农桑,社会生产力发展,国力强盛。他继续发起对东夷用兵,打退了东夷向中原扩张,把商朝势力扩展到江淮一带。特别是讨伐徐夷的胜利,把商朝的国土扩大到山东、安徽、江苏、浙江、福建沿海,把疆土开拓到我国东南一带,开发了长江流域。为古代中国的最终统一奠定了物质和思想的基础,是统一古代中国的先驱者。
纣王统治从印度到埃塞俄比亚,这就是商朝的大小。然后向现在的中国进攻。
The name Ahasuerus is equivalent to the Greek name Xerxes(纣王), both deriving from the Old Persian language Xšayārša. The form Xerxes has not traditionally appeared in English Bibles,[1] but has rather appeared as Ahasuerus. Many newer translations and paraphrases[2] have used the name Xerxes.
The name Xerxes comes from the Greek Ancient Greek: Ξέρξης. The English name Ahasuerus is derived from a Latinized form of the Hebrew Akhashverosh (Hebrew: אחשורוש), which is a Hebrew rendering of the Babylonian Achshiyarshu: both this and the Greek Ancient Greek: Ξέρξης are renderings of the Old Persian Xšayāršā.[3] Thus this literary change was created as the name moved across each of the language groups in a westerly direction from Persia until it entered English translations of the Bible.
亚哈随鲁(Ahasuerus;希伯来语:אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ,标准希伯来语转写:Aḥašveroš,提比利亚希伯来语转写:ʾĂḫašwērôš,一般转写:Achashverosh)是波斯帝国阿契美尼德王朝的国王。他的名字经常都在《旧约圣经》及一些次经和伪经里出现。
记住:我们要用根据史记,分清楚各个西方文献中的各个地名,王国,才不会糊涂。
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2 In those days when the king Ahasuerus [c]sat on his throne, which was in the palace of Shushan,
3 In the third year of his reign, he made a feast unto all his princes and his servants, even the power of Persia and Media, and to the captains and governors of the provinces which were before him,
4 That he might show the riches and glory of his kingdom, and the honor of his great majesty many days, even an hundred and fourscore days.
5 And when these days were expired, the king made a feast to all the people that were found in the palace of Shushan, both unto great and small, seven days, in the court of the garden of the king’s palace,
6 Under an hanging of white, green, and blue cloths, fastened with cords of fine linen and purple, in silver rings, and pillars of marble: the [d]beds were of gold and of silver upon a pavement of porphyry, and marble and alabaster, and blue color.
7 And they gave them drink in vessels of gold, and changed vessel after vessel, and royal wine in abundance, according to the [e]power of the king.
8 And the drinking was by an order, none might [f]compel: for so the king had appointed unto all the officers of his house, that they should do according to every man’s pleasure.
9 ¶ The Queen Vashti made a feast also for the women in the royal house of King Ahasuerus.
10 Upon the [g]seventh day when the King was merry with wine, he commanded Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha, and Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, the seven eunuchs, (that served in the presence of king Ahasuerus)
11 To bring Queen Vashti before the king with the crown royal, that he might show the people and the princes her beauty: for she was fair to look upon.
12 But the Queen Vashti refused to come at the king’s word, [h]which he had given in charge to the eunuchs: therefore the King was very angry, and his wrath kindled in him.
13 Then the King said to the wise men, [i]that knew the times (for so was the King’s manner towards all that knew the law and the judgment:
14 And the next unto him was Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan the seven Princes of Persia, and Media, which saw the [j]King’s face, and sat the first in the kingdom.)
15 What shall we do unto the Queen Vashti according to the law, because she did not according to the word of the King Ahasuerus by the commission of the eunuchs?
16 Then Memucan answered before the king and the Princes, The Queen Vashti hath not only done [k]evil against the King, but against all the Princes, and against all the people that are in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus.
17 For the [l]act of the Queen shall come abroad unto all women, so that they shall despise their husbands in their own eyes, and shall say, The King Ahasuerus commanded Vashti the Queen to be brought in before him, but she came not.
18 So shall the [m]Princesses of Persia and Media this day say unto all the King’s Princes, when they hear of the act of the Queen: thus shall there be much despitefulness and wrath.
19 If it please the King, let a royal decree proceed from him, and let it be written among the statutes of Persia and Media, (and let it not be transgressed) that Vashti come [n]no more before king Ahasuerus: and let the king give her royal estate unto her companion that is better than she.
20 And when the decree of the King which shall be made, shall be published throughout all his kingdom (though it be [o]great) all the women shall give their husbands honor, both great and small.
21 And this saying pleased the King and the Princes, and the King did according to the word of Memucan.
22 For he sent letters into all the provinces of the King, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should [p]bear rule in his own house, and that he should publish it in the language of that same people.
2 2 After the Queen is put away, certain young maids are brought to the king. 17 Esther pleaseth the King, and is made Queen. 22 Mordecai discloseth unto the king those that would betray him.
1 After these things, when the wrath of King Ahasuerus was appeased, he [a]remembered Vashti, and what she had done, and what was decreed [b]against her.
2 And the King’s servants that ministered unto him, said, Let them seek for the King beautiful young virgins,
3 And let the King appoint officers through all the provinces of his Kingdom, and let them gather all the beautiful young virgins unto the palace of Shushan, into the house of the women, under the hand of Hegai the King’s eunuch, [c]keeper of the women, to give them their things [d]for purification.
4 And the maid that shall please the King, let her reign in the stead of Vashti. And this pleased the king, and he did so.
5 ¶ In the city of Shushan there was a certain Jew, whose name was Mordecai, the son of Jair, the son of Shimei, the son of Kish a man of Benjamin,
6 Which had been carried away from Jerusalem with the captivity that was carried away with Jeconiah King of Judah (whom Nebuchadnezzar king of Babel had carried away.)
7 And he nourished Hadassah, that is, Esther, his uncle’s daughter: for she had neither father nor mother, and the maid was fair and beautiful to look on: and after the death of her father, and her mother, Mordecai took her for his own daughter.
8 And when the king’s commandment, and his decree was published, and many maids were brought together to the palace of Shushan, under the hand of Hegai, Esther was brought also unto the King’s house under the hand of Hegai the keeper of the women.
9 And the maid pleased him, and she found favor in his sight, therefore he caused her things for purification to be given her speedily, and her [e]state, and seven comely maids to be given her out of the King’s house, and he gave change to her and to her maids of the best in the house of the women.
10 But Esther showed not her people and her kindred: for Mordecai had charged her that she should not tell it.
11 And Mordecai walked [f]every day before the court of the women’s house, to know if Esther did well, and what should be done with her.
12 And when the course of every maid came, to go in to King Ahasuerus, after that she had been twelve months according to the manner of the women (for so were the days of their purifications accomplished, six months with oil of myrrh, and six months with sweet odors and in the purifying of the women:
13 And thus went the maids unto the King) whatsoever she required, was [g]given her to go with her out of the women’s house unto the king’s house.
14 In the evening she went, and on the morrow she returned into the second house of the women under the hand of Shaashgaz the King’s eunuch, which kept the concubines: she came in to the King no more, except she pleased the King, and that she were called by name.
15 Now when the course of Esther the daughter of Abihail the uncle of Mordecai (which had taken her as his own daughter) came, that she should go in to the king, she desired nothing, but what [h]Hege the king’s eunuch the keeper of the women [i]said: and Esther found favor in the sight of all them that looked upon her.
16 ¶ So Esther was taken unto king Ahasuerus into his house royal in the tenth month, which is the [j]month Tebeth, in the seventh year of his reign.
17 And the King loved Esther above all the women, and she found grace and favor in his sight more than all the virgins: so that he set the crown of the kingdom upon her head, and made her Queen instead of Vashti.
18 Then the king made a great feast unto all his princes, and his servants, which was [k]the feast of Esther, and gave rest [l]unto the provinces, and gifts, according to the [m]power of a king.
19 And when the virgins were gathered the [n]second time, then Mordecai sat in the king’s gate.
20 Esther had not yet showed her kindred nor her people, as Mordecai had charged her: for Esther did after the word of Mordecai, as when she was nourished with him.
21 ¶ In those days when Mordecai sat in the king’s gate, two of the king’s eunuchs, Bigthan and Teresh, which kept the door, were wroth, and sought to lay [o]hand on the King Ahasuerus.
22 And the thing was known to Mordecai, and he told it unto Queen Esther, and Esther certified the king thereof in Mordecai’s name: and when inquisition was made, it was found so: therefore they were both hanged on a tree: and it was written in the book of the [p]Chronicles before the king.
3 1 Haman, after he was exalted, obtained of the King, that all the Jews should be put to death, because Mordecai had not done him worship as others had.
1 After these things did king Ahasuerus promote Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, and exalted him, and set his seat above all the princes that were with him.
2 And all the king’s servants that were at the king’s gate, bowed their knees, and reverenced Haman: for the king had so commanded concerning him: but Mordecai [a]bowed not the knee, neither did reverence.
3 Then the king’s servants which were at the king’s gate, said unto Mordecai, Why transgressest thou the king’s commandment?
4 And albeit they spake daily unto him, yet he would not hear them: therefore they [b]told Haman, that they might see how Mordecai’s matters would stand: for he had told them, that he was a Jew.
5 And when Haman saw that Mordecai bowed not the knee unto him, nor did reverence unto him, then Haman was full of wrath.
6 Now he [c]thought it too little to lay hands only on Mordecai: and because they had showed him the people of Mordecai, Haman sought to destroy all the Jews that were throughout the whole kingdom of Ahasuerus, even the people of Mordecai.
7 In the first month (that is the month [d]Nisan) in the twelfth year of king Ahasuerus, they cast Pur (that is a lot) [e]before Haman, from day to day, and from month to month unto the twelfth month, that is the month [f]Adar.
8 Then Haman said unto king Ahasuerus, There is a people scattered, and dispersed among the people in all the provinces of thy kingdom, and their laws are divers from all people, and they do not observe the [g]King’s laws: therefore it is not the king’s profit to suffer them.
9 If it please the king, let it be written that they may be destroyed, and I will [h]pay ten thousand talents of silver by the hands of them that have the charge of this business to bring it into the king’s treasury.
10 Then the king took his ring from his hand, and gave it unto Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite the Jews’ adversary.
11 And the king said unto Haman, Let the silver be thine, and the people to do with them as it pleaseth thee.
12 Then were the king’s [i]Scribes called on the thirteenth day of the first month, and there was written (according to all that Haman commanded) unto the king’s officers, and to the captains that were over every province, and to the rulers of every people, and to every province, according to the writing thereof, and to every people according to their language: in the name of king Ahasuerus was it written, and sealed with the king’s ring.
13 And the letters were sent [j]by posts into all the king’s provinces, to root out, to kill and to destroy all the Jews, both young and old, children and women, in one day upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month (which is the month Adar) and to spoil them as a prey.
14 The contents of the writing was, that there should be given a commandment in all provinces, and published unto all people, that they should be ready against the same day.
15 And the posts compelled by the King’s commandment went forth, and the commandment was given in the palace at Shushan: and the king and Haman sat drinking, but the [k]city of Shushan was in perplexity.
4 5 Mordecai giveth the Queen knowledge of the cruel decree of the king against the Jews. 16 She willeth that they pray for her.
1 Now when Mordecai perceived all that was done, Mordecai rent his clothes, and put on sackcloth, and ashes, and went out into the midst of the city, and cried with a great cry, and a bitter.
2 And he came even before the King’s [a]gate, but he might not enter within the king’s gate, being clothed with sackcloth.
3 And in every province and place, whither the king’s charge and his commission came, there was great sorrow among the Jews, and fasting, and weeping, and mourning, and [b]many lay in sackcloth and in ashes.
4 ¶ Then Esther’s maids and her Eunuchs came and told it her: therefore the queen was very heavy, and she sent raiment to clothe Mordecai, and to take away his sackcloth from him, but he received it not.
5 Then called Esther Hathach one of the King’s eunuchs, whom he [c]had appointed to serve her, and gave him a commandment unto Mordecai, to know what it was, and why it was.
6 So Hathach went forth to Mordecai unto the street of the city, which was before the king’s gate.
7 And Mordecai told him of all that which had come unto him, and of the [d]sum of the silver that Haman had promised to pay unto the King’s treasures, because of the Jews, for to destroy them.
8 Also he gave him the [e]copy of the writing and commission that was given at Shushan, to destroy them, that he might show it unto Esther and declare it unto her, and to charge her that she should go in to the king, and make petition and supplication before him for her people.
9 ¶ So when Hathach came, he told Esther the words of Mordecai.
10 Then Esther said unto Hathach, and commanded him to say unto Mordecai,
11 All the king’s servants and the people of the King’s provinces do know, That whosoever, man or woman, that cometh to the king into the inner court, which is not called, there is a law of his, that he shall die, except him to whom the king holdeth out the golden rod, that he may live. Now I have not been called to come unto the king these thirty days.
12 And they certified Mordecai of Esther’s words.
13 And Mordecai said, that they should answer Esther thus, Think not with thyself that thou shalt escape in the king’s house, more than all the Jews.
14 For if thou holdest thy peace at this time, [f]comfort and deliverance [g]shall appear to the Jews out of another place, but thou and thy father’s house shall perish: and who knoweth whether thou art come to the kingdom for [h]such a time?
15 Then Esther commanded to answer Mordecai,
16 Go, and assemble all the Jews that are found in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and eat not, nor drink in three days, day nor night. I also and my maids will fast likewise, and so will I go in to the King, which is not according to the law: and if I perish, [i]I perish.
17 So Mordecai went his way, and did according to all that Esther had commanded him.
5 1 Esther entereth to the King, and biddeth him and Haman to a feast. 14 Haman prepareth a gallows for Mordecai.
1 And on the third [a]day Esther put on her royal apparel, and stood in the court of the King’s palace within, over against the King’s house: and the King sat upon his royal throne in the king’s palace over against the gate of the house.
2 And when the King saw Esther the Queen standing in the court, she found favor in his sight: and the King [b]held out the golden scepter that was in his hand: so Esther drew near, and touched the top of the scepter.
3 Then said the King unto her, What wilt thou, Queen Esther? and what is thy request? it shall be even [c]given thee to the half of the kingdom.
4 Then said Esther, If it please the king, let the King and Haman come this day unto the banquet, that I have prepared for him.
5 And the king said, Cause Haman to make haste, that he may do as Esther hath said. So the king and Haman came to the banquet that Esther had prepared.
6 And the king said unto Esther at the banquet of [d]wine, What is thy petition, that it may be given thee? and what is thy request? it shall even be performed unto the half of the kingdom.
7 Then answered Esther, and said, My petition, and my request is,
8 If I have found favor in the sight of the king, and if it please the king to give me my petition, and to perform my request, let the king and Haman come to the banquet that I shall prepare for them, and I will do tomorrow according to the king’s [e]saying.
9 ¶ Then went Haman forth the same day joyful, and with a glad heart. But when Haman saw Mordecai in the king’s gate, that he stood not up, nor moved for him, then was Haman full of indignation at Mordecai.
10 Nevertheless, Haman refrained himself: and when he came home, he sent, and called for his friends, and Zeresh his wife.
11 And Haman told them of the glory of his riches, and the multitude of his children, and all the things wherein the king had [f]promoted him, and how that he had set him above the princes and servants of the king.
12 Haman said moreover, Yea, Esther the queen did let no man come in with the king to the banquet that she had prepared, save me: and tomorrow am I bidden unto her also with the king.
13 But all this doth nothing avail me, as long as I see Mordecai the Jew sitting at the king’s gate.
14 Then said Zeresh his wife and all his friends unto him, Let them make a tree of fifty [g]cubits high, and tomorrow speak thou unto the king, that Mordecai may be hanged thereon: then shalt thou go joyfully with the king unto the banquet. And the thing pleased Haman, and he caused to make the tree.
6 2 The king turneth over the Chronicles, and findeth the fidelity of Mordecai, 10 and commandeth Haman to cause Mordecai to be had in honor.
1 The same night [a]the king slept not, and he commanded to bring the book of the Records, and the Chronicles: and they were read before the king.
2 Then it was found written that Mordecai had told of Bigthana and Teresh, two of the king’s eunuchs keepers of the door, who sought to lay hands on the King Ahasuerus.
3 Then the king said, What honor and dignity hath been given to Mordecai [b]for this? And the king’s servants that ministered unto him, said, There is nothing done for him.
4 And the king said, Who is in the court? (Now Haman was come into the inner court of the king’s house, that he might speak unto the king to [c]hang Mordecai on the tree that he had prepared for him.)
5 And the king’s servants said unto him, Behold, Haman standeth in the court. And the king said, Let him come in.
6 And when Haman came in, the king said unto him, What shall be done unto the man whom the king will honor? Then Haman thought in his heart, To whom would the king do honor more than to me?
7 And Haman answered the king, The man whom the king would honor,
8 Let them bring for him royal apparel, which the king useth to wear, and the [d]horse that the king rideth upon, and that the crown royal may be set upon his head.
9 And let the raiment and the horse be delivered by the hand of one of the king’s most noble princes, and let them apparel the man (whom the king will honor) and cause him to ride upon the horse through the street of the city, and proclaim before him, Thus shall it be done unto the man whom the king will honor.
10 Then the king said to Haman, Make haste, take the raiment and the horse, as thou hast said, and do so unto Mordecai the Jew, that sitteth at the king’s gate: let nothing fail of all that thou hast spoken.
11 So Haman took the raiment and the horse, and arrayed Mordecai, and brought him on horseback through the street of the city, and proclaimed before him, Thus shall it be done to the man whom the king will honor.
12 And Mordecai came again to the king’s gate, but Haman hasted home mourning and his head covered.
13 And Haman told Zeresh his wife, and all his friends, all that had befallen him. Then said his wise men, and Zeresh his wife unto him, If Mordecai be of the seed of the Jews, before whom thou hast begun to fall, thou shalt not prevail against him, [e]but shalt surely fall before him.
14 And while they were yet talking with him, came the king’s eunuchs and hasted to bring Haman unto the banquet that Esther had prepared.
7 3 The queen biddeth the king and Haman again, and prayeth for herself and her people. 6 She accuseth Haman, and he is hanged on the gallows which he had prepared for Mordecai.
1 So the king and Haman came to banquet with the queen Esther.
2 And the king said again unto Esther on the second day at the banquet of [a]wine, What is thy petition, Queen Esther, that it may be given thee? and what is thy request? It shall be even performed unto the half of the kingdom.
3 And Esther the queen answered, and said, If I have found favor in thy sight, O king, and if it please the king, let my life be given me at my petition, and my people at my request.
4 For we are sold, I, and my people, to be destroyed, to be slain, and to perish: but if we were sold for servants, and for handmaids, I would have held my tongue, although the adversary could not [b]recompense the king’s loss.
5 Then king Ahasuerus answered, and said unto the queen Esther, Who is he? and where is he that [c]presumeth to do thus?
6 And Esther said, The adversary and enemy is this wicked Haman. Then Haman was afraid before the king and the queen.
7 And the king arose from the banquet of wine in his wrath, and went into the palace garden: but Haman stood up to make request for his life to the queen Esther: for he saw that there was a [d]mischief prepared for him of the king.
8 And when the king came again out of the palace garden, into the house where they drank wine, Haman was [e]fallen upon the bed whereon Esther sat: therefore the King said, Will he force the Queen also before me in the house? As the word went out of the King’s mouth, they [f]covered Haman’s face.
9 And Harbonah one of the eunuchs, said in the presence of the King, Behold, there standeth yet the tree in Haman’s house fifty cubits high, which Haman had prepared for Mordecai, that spake [g]good for the king. Then the King said, Hang him thereon.
10 So they hanged Haman on the tree, that he had prepared for Mordecai: then was the King’s wrath pacified.
8 1 After the death of Haman was Mordecai exalted. 14 Comfortable letters are sent unto the Jews.
1 The same day did King Ahasuerus give the house of Haman the adversary of the Jews, unto the Queen Esther. And Mordecai [a]came before the King: for Esther told what he was [b]unto her.
2 And the King took off his ring, which he had taken from Haman, and gave it unto Mordecai: and Esther set Mordecai over the house of Haman.
3 And Esther spake yet more before the King, and fell down at his feet weeping, and besought him that he would put away the [c]wickedness of Haman the Agagite, and his device that he had imagined against the Jews.
4 And the King held out the golden [d]scepter toward Esther. Then arose Esther, and stood before the King,
5 And said, If it please the King, and if I have found favor in his sight, and the thing be acceptable before the King, and I please him, let it be written, that the letters of the device of Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite may be called again, which he wrote to destroy the Jews, that are in all the King’s provinces.
6 For how can I suffer and see the evil, that shall come unto my people? Or how can I suffer and see the destruction of my kindred?
7 And the king Ahasuerus said unto the Queen Esther, and to Mordecai the Jew, Behold, I have given Esther the house of Haman, whom they have hanged upon the tree, because he [e]laid hand upon the Jews.
8 Write ye also for the Jews, as it liketh you in the King’s name, and seal it with the King’s ring, (for the writings written in the King’s name, and sealed with the king’s ring, may [f]no man revoke.)
9 Then were the King’s Scribes called at the same time, even in the third month, that is the month [g]Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof: and it was written, according to all as Mordecai commanded, unto the Jews and to the princes, and captains and rulers of the provinces, which were from India even unto Ethiopia, an hundred and seven and twenty provinces, unto every province according to the [h]writing thereof, and to every people after their speech, and to the Jews, according to their writing, and according to their language.
10 And he wrote in the King Ahasuerus’s name, and sealed it with the King’s ring, and he sent letters by posts on horseback and that rode on beasts of price, as dromedaries, and [i]colts of mares.
11 Wherein the King granted the Jews (in what cities soever they were) to gather themselves together, and to stand for [j]their life, and to root out, to slay and to destroy all the power of the people and of the province that vexed them, both children and women, and to spoil their goods:
12 Upon one day in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, even in the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month [k]Adar.
13 The copy of the writing was, how there should be a commandment given in all and every province, published among all the people, and that the Jews should be ready against that day, to [l]avenge themselves on their enemies.
14 So the posts rode upon beasts of price, and dromedaries, and went forth with speed, to execute the King’s commandment, and the decree was given at Shushan the palace.
15 And Mordecai went out from the King in royal apparel of blue, and white, and with a great crown of gold, and with a garment of fine linen and purple, and the city of Shushan rejoiced and was glad.
16 And unto the Jews was come light and [m]joy and gladness, and honor.
17 Also in all and every province, and in all and every city and place, where the King’s commandment and his decree came, there was joy and gladness to the Jews, a feast and good day, and many of the people of the land [n]became Jews: for the fear of the Jews fell upon them.
9 1 At the commandment of the King, the Jews put their adversaries to death. 14 The ten sons of Haman are hanged. 17 The Jews keep a feast in remembrance of their deliverance.
1 So in the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, upon the thirteenth day of the same, when the King’s commandment and his decree drew near to be put in execution, in the day that the enemies of the Jews hoped to have power over them (but it [a]turned contrary: for the Jews had rule over them that hated them.)
2 The Jews gathered themselves together into their cities throughout all the provinces of the King Ahasuerus, to lay hand on such as sought their hurt, and no man could withstand them: for the fear of them fell upon all people.
3 And all the rulers of the provinces, and the princes and the captains, and the officers of the King [b]exalted the Jews: for the fear of Mordecai fell upon them.
4 For Mordecai was great in the King’s house, and the report of him went through all the provinces: for this man Mordecai waxed greater and greater.
5 Thus the Jews smote all their [c]enemies with strokes of the sword and slaughter, and destruction, and did what they would unto those that hated them.
6 And at Shushan the palace slew the Jews and destroyed [d]five hundred men,
7 And Parshandatha, and Dalphon, and Aspatha,
8 And Poratha, and Adalia, and Aridatha,
9 And Parmashta, and Arisai, and Aridai, and Vajezatha,
10 The ten sons of Haman, the son of Hammedatha, the adversary of the Jews slew they: but they laid not their hands [e]on the spoil.
11 On the same day came the number of those that were slain, unto the palace of Shushan before the King.
12 And the King said unto the Queen Esther, The Jews have slain in Shushan the palace, and destroyed five hundred men, and the ten sons of Haman: what have they done in the rest of the King’s provinces? and what is thy petition, that it may be given thee? or what is thy request moreover, that it may be performed?
13 Then said Esther, If it please the King, let it be granted also tomorrow to the Jews that are in Shushan, to do according [f]unto this day’s decree, that they may hang upon the tree Haman’s ten sons.
14 And the King charged to do so, and the decree was given at Shushan, and they hanged Haman’s ten sons.
15 ¶ So the Jews that were in Shushan, assembled themselves upon the fourteenth day of the month Adar, and slew three hundred men in Shushan, but on the spoil they laid not their hand.
16 And the rest of the Jews that were in the King’s provinces assembled themselves, and stood for [g]their lives, and had rest from their enemies, and slew of them that [h]hated them, seventy and five thousand: but they laid not their hand on the spoil.
17 This they did on the [i]thirteenth day of the month Adar, and rested the fourteenth day thereof, and kept it a day of feasting and joy.
18 But the Jews that were in Shushan assembled themselves on the thirteenth day, and on the fourteenth thereof, and they rested on the fifteenth of the same, and kept it a day of feasting and joy.
19 Therefore the Jews of the villages that dwelt in the unwalled towns, [j]kept the fourteenth day of the month Adar with joy and feasting, even a joyful day, and everyone sent presents unto his neighbor.
20 ¶ And Mordecai wrote [k]these words, and sent letters unto all the Jews that were through all the provinces of the King Ahasuerus, both near and far,
21 Enjoining them that they should keep the fourteenth day of the month Adar, and the fifteenth day of the same, every year.
22 According to the days wherein the Jews rested from their enemies, and the month which was turned unto them from sorrow to joy, and from mourning into a joyful day, to keep them the days of feasting and joy, and to [l]send presents every man to his neighbor, and gifts to the poor.
23 And the Jews promised to do as they had begun, and as Mordecai had written unto them,
24 Because Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite all the Jews’ adversary had imagined against the Jews to destroy them, and had [m]cast Pur (that is a lot) to consume and destroy them.
25 And when [n]she came before the king, he commanded by letters, Let this wicked [o]device (which he imagined against the Jews) turn upon his own head, and let them hang him and his sons on the tree.
26 Therefore they called these days Purim, by the name of Pur, and because of all the words of this letter, and of that which they had seen besides this, and of that which had come unto them.
27 The Jews also ordained, and promised for them and for their seed, and for all that joined unto them, that they would not [p]fail to observe those two [q]days every year, according to their writing, and according unto their season,
28 And that these days should be remembered, and kept throughout every generation and every family, and every province, and every city: even these days of Purim should not fail among the Jews, and the memorial of them should not perish from their seed.
29 And the Queen Esther the daughter of Abihail and Mordecai the Jew wrote with all [r]authority (to confirm this letter of Purim the second time.)
30 And he sent letters unto all the Jews to the hundred and seven and twenty provinces of the kingdom of Ahasuerus, with [s]words of peace and truth,
31 To confirm these days of Purim according to their seasons, as Mordecai the Jew and Esther the Queen had appointed them, and as they had promised for [t]themselves and for their seed with [u]fasting and prayer.
32 And the decree of Esther confirmed these words of Purim, and was written in the book.
10 1 The estimation and authority of Mordecai.
1 And the King Ahasuerus laid a tribute upon the land, and upon the isles of the sea.
2 And all the acts of his power, and of his might, and the declaration of the dignity of Mordecai, wherewith the King magnified him, are they not written in the book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Media and Persia?
3 For Mordecai the Jew was the second unto king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and [a]accepted among the multitude of his brethren, who procured the wealth of his people, and spake peaceably to all his seed.

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